2021年广东中学生模联初赛试题

模联公告中际教育11902021-04-07

Guangdong High School Students

MUN Conference 2021

Preliminaries

2021 广东中学生模拟联合国大会

初赛试题

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Guangdong High School Students Model United Nations

Conference Organizing Committee

广东中学生模拟联合国大会组委会


写作要求 WRITING REQUIREMENTS

根据参赛学生就读年级不同,英语水平不同,兴趣领域不同,提供A、B、C三组不同初赛试题,中英文版本相同。参赛的同学可以选择其中一组题目,以中英文进行写作。参加中文委员会的初中学生应以中文写作,参加英文委员会的初中生以及所有高中学生应用英文写作。要求中文文章 800 字以上,英文文章500 字以上。文章不得抄袭,如有引用,请以脚注的形式标注。

格式参考如下:

    1.字体:小四;中文使用宋体,英文使用Times New Roman;

    2.间隔:首行缩进2个字符;1.5倍行距;每个标点仅空一格。

文章引用参考如下:

    1.中文组:

        √    期刊杂志   李东燕: “联合国与国际和平与安全的维护”,《世界经济与政治》,2015年,第4期,第4~22页。

        √    学术专著   休·希顿—沃森:《民族与国家:对民族起源与民族主义政治的探讨》,吴洪英、黄群译,北京:中央民族大学出版社,2009年,第614~615 页。

        √    网络资源   联合国《千年宣言》http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/UNDOC/GEN/N00/559/50/PDF/N0055950.pdf?openElement.(2015年9月2日)。


    2.英文组:

        √    学术专著  Stephen Tierney,“Legal Issues Surrounding the Referendum on Independence for Scotland”,European Constitutional Law Review,Vol.9,No.3,2013,p.361.

        √    期刊杂志  Robert Goman, Great Debates at the United Nations: an Encyclopedia of Fifty Key Issues,1945-2000,London: Greenwood Press,2001,p.321.


    备注:

        1、请在文章首页注明学生姓名、年级、学校、邮箱地址和选取话题。

        2、初中可以参加中文组或者英文组,高中仅限英文组。




WRITING REQUIREMENTS

You can choose one of the topics in page 3 to write an essay according to your grade ,level of English competency and your interest. Participants from Junior High school in the Chinese Committee may write it in Chinese. Other participants, including all Senior High school participants and those from Junior High school who wish to participate in the English Committee, should write the essays in English.

The format of your essay should be as follows:

Typeface: 12-pt Times New Roman.

Spacing: Use a 1.5 times-spaced paragraph with a 2-character indentation on the beginning of each paragraph. Use only one space after each period at all times.

Notes:

1.Please state your name, grade, school, email address and the topic you choose at the first page of your essay.

2.The Chinese committee is open to junior high school students exclusively but the English committee is open to both junior high school students and senior high school students.



题目 TOPICS

 

A组:中国成功脱贫(China's success in poverty alleviation

 

参考内容:

2021225日,习近平总书记在全国脱贫攻坚总结表彰大会上庄严宣告:“现行标准下9899万农村贫困人口全部脱贫,832个贫困县全部摘帽,12.8万个贫困村全部出列。”这意味着中国提前10年实现联合国可持续发展议程确定的减贫目标,为世界减贫事业树立了中国典范。

    与中国的这一伟大壮举形成鲜明对比的是,全球许多国家和地区的减贫工作进展缓慢。如今,仍有7亿多人(占世界人口的10%)生活在极端贫困中,他们对医疗、教育、用水和卫生设施等最基本的需求仍无法得到满足。大多数日均生活费不足1.90美元的人生活在撒哈拉以南非洲。全世界农村地区的贫困率是17.2%,是城市地区的三倍多。

   联合国大学世界发展经济学研究所在最新的研究中提出警告,此次全球大流行病造成的经济影响可能使全球贫困人口增加5亿人,占全球总人口的8%。自1990年起的30年来,全球贫困率可能将首次出现增长。

 

为了向联合国提交一份报告,分享中国的脱贫经验,请你撰写一份介绍中国成功脱贫的必然性的论文。

 

Xi, the general secretary of the Communist Party of China Central Committee announced in a grand gathering held in Beijing to mark the country's accomplishments in poverty alleviation and award its model poverty fighters.He said,China has lifted 98.99 million poor rural residents under the current poverty line out of poverty, with 832 impoverished counties and 128,000 poor villages removed from the poverty list.This implies that China has achieved the goal of NO POVERTY listed in United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 10 years ahead of schedule,setting a Chinese example of poverty alleviation for the world.

 

In stark contrast to this great feat of China, many countries and regions in the world have made little progress in poverty alleviation.More than 700 million people, or 10 per cent of the world population, still live in extreme poverty today, struggling to fulfil the most basic needs such as health, education, and access to water and sanitation, to name a few. The majority of people living on less than $1.90 a day live in sub-Saharan Africa. Worldwide, the poverty rate in rural areas is 17.2 per centmore than three times higher than in urban areas.

 

New research published by the UNU World Institute for Development Economics Research warns that the economic fallout from the global pandemic could increase global poverty by as much as half a billion people, or 8% of the total human population. This would be the first time that poverty has increased globally in thirty years, since 1990.

 

In order to submit a report to the United Nations and share China's poverty alleviation experience, please write an essay introducing China's success in poverty alleviation.



[1] https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/zh/poverty/

[2] https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/zh/poverty/



参考资料:

1.    《中国扶贫实地调研报告》 公众号:卢克文工作室;https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/yGOyPBjYC3ji7OXp-m4fcg

2.    《宣战2020——中国扶贫报告》 李小云 汪三贵等 https://pit.ifeng.com/report/special/zgfpbg/index.shtml

3.    《全国人民代表大会常务委员会专题调研组关于脱贫攻坚工作情况的调研报告(全文)》 公众号:中国扶贫 https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/hSCh5EuOX8xRGYH94b9gXg

4.王小鲁、李实、汪三贵、李小云等,《中国发展报告2007:在发展中消除贫困》,中国发展出版社,2007

5.《中国精准扶贫发展报告(2017)》 陆汉文 黄承伟  社会科学文献出版社出版;

6. 林毅夫:《战胜命运:跨越贫困陷阱创造经济奇迹》,北京大学出版社,2017

 

注意:本报告针对的对象是联合国,文章尽量应从实际出发,提供详实的数据或者事实案例等实质性内容加以论证。

 

B组:美国的衰落,暂时的还是永久的?(The Decline of America: Temporary or Permanent ?

 

2020522日,著名的对冲机构——桥水基金CEO达里奥发布了一篇2万字长文《过去500年的大周期》,分析了几大帝国500年的兴衰史,旗帜鲜明地唱衰美国:美国就像过去的罗马帝国、查理曼帝国、大英帝国一样走向衰落,而中国将崛起,取而代之。

其实,唱衰美国的声音由来已久。20世纪80年代,日本经济突飞猛进,日本家电产品潮水般涌入美国,冲击北美本土产业。日本商人买下了纽约的帝国大厦,并放出可以买下整个美国的房产的豪言壮语。一时之间,美国即将衰落的论调冲击着美国人的神经。再往前追溯,冷战时期,美国很长一段时间都处于下风。尤其是20世纪70年代,国外,美国陷入越南战争的泥潭,国内,美国通货膨胀高企,种族骚乱频发。帝国末日的景象笼罩着整个北美大地。

但事实证明,昙花一现的日本繁荣和盛极而衰的苏联霸权都只是美国通往持续繁荣之路上的点缀和插曲,美国的衰落只是许多人的一厢情愿。然而,这一次,美国面临的挑战者是中国——一个迥异于日本和苏联的强劲对手,其给美国带来的挑战是全方位的。在外部面临着强大的挑战者的同时,美国内部自身也经历着前所未有的困境。极化的政治使得两党几乎无法达成共识,种族的撕裂有将美国推入内战的苗头,人口结构的长期变化可能摧毁美国的传统价值。

这一次美国的衰落,到底是暂时的还是永久的呢?请给出你的答案并撰写一篇论文进行详细论述。

 

On May 22, 2020, Dario, CEO of Bridgewater Fund, a well-known hedging agency released a 20,000-word essay titiled The Big Cycles Over The Last 500 years, in which he analyzed the 500-year history of the rise and fall of several great empires and publicly declared the decline of America:The United States will follow the Rome Empire, Charlemagne Empire, and the British Empire to decline, and China will rise and replace it.

 

Actually, the view about Americas decline has been around for a long time. In the 1980s,Japan had a boom in its economy, with its electrical appliance flooding into U.S., impacting North American industries. A Japanese merchant bought the The Empire State Building in New York City, stating that he could buy up real estate in America. A voice that America was to decline hit the Americans suddenly. Back further, America was at a disadvantage for a long time during the cold war especially in the 1970s, abroad, the United States fell into the quagmire of the Vietnam War,while at home the United States had high inflation and frequent racial riots. A scene of the end of the empire enveloped the entire land of North America.

 

But it turned out that the short-lived prosperity and of Japan and the Soviet Union hegemony were only embellishments and interlude on the road to sustained prosperity for the United States, and the decline of the United States is only wishful thinking of many people.However,the challenger of the United States this time is China, a powerful opponent that is very different from Japan and the Soviet Union. The challenges China brings to the United States are all-round. While facing a powerful challenger externally, the United States itself is also experiencing unprecedented difficulties. Polarized politics has made it almost impossible for the two parties to reach a consensus. The rupture of racial issues may push the United States into a civil war and long-term changes in the demographic structure may destroy the traditional values of the United States.

 

Is the decline of the United States this time temporary or permanent? Please give your answer and write an essay explaining why you think so.



参考资料:

1.    《美国社会的根本问题在哪里?》 公众号:地球知识局 https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/A55w1y8Nc4TWpaSgbxmIXw

2.    《赌美国会输,就一定是一个不明智的选择吗?》 公众号:灼识新维度https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/alUwiWWkti4VxVDmmhzdug

3.    《美国再次伟大,需要的是一场自我颠覆性内战》https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/vjtVsWoSsqd8_kQddMA1bA  公众号:灼识新维度;

4.    20世纪的美国》(修订版)资中筠  商务印书馆 201806 (唯一指定版本);

5.    《美帝国的奔溃》 约翰·加尔通  人民文学出版社;

6.    《光荣与梦想》 威廉·曼彻斯特著;


注意:在这一问题上,组委会在评分时不持任何立场,任何一种观点,只要论证合理,论据充分,都会得的相应的分数,我们期待客观、真实、理性的声音。



C组:未雨绸缪—当下一场大流行病来袭时,我们该如何应对?(Prepare for a rainy day ——How to prepare for the next pandemic?)

 

2019918日,全球防范工作监测委员会(The Global Preparedness Monitoring Board )发布了《一个危机四伏的世界:全球突发卫生事件防范工作年度报告》(A World At Risk: Annual report on global preparedness for health emergencies )预测世界随时会爆发一场致命的呼吸道病原体的大流行病(Pandemic),并且可能会有5000-8000万人会死亡。除了恐怖的死亡率外,流行病还会造成恐慌,破坏国家安全,严重影响全球经济和贸易。 

20191231日,世卫组织驻华代表处从武汉市卫生健康委员会网站上获悉关于中华人民共和国武汉出现“病毒性肺炎”病例的情况通报。从这一天开始,世卫组织基本上每天通报关于这一新型疾病的最新消息。然而,世界各国对此熟若无睹,对于世卫组织发出的种种预警无动于衷。

直到2020311日,世卫组织对令人震惊的传播水平和严重程度深感担忧,也对令人震惊的无所作为程度深感担忧,认定COVID-19为大流行病

总干事在COVID-19媒体通报会上发言,强调世卫组织自接到第一批病例通知以来,一直处于全面应对状态,并“每天呼吁各国紧急采取大力行动”。

他重申世卫组织从一开始就发出的呼吁,要求各国围绕预防感染、拯救生命和尽量减少影响的全面战略,采取政府上下一致和全社会参与的做法。

他强调,“无论我们以多大的声音,或者多么清楚,或者多么经常地强调这一点,都不为过”。他还强调,“如果所有国家能够发现、检测、治疗、隔离、追踪和动员人民做出反应,它们仍然可以改变这次疫情的走向”。

他强调说,“对于许多正在应对大规模聚集性病例或社区传播的国家来说,面临的挑战不是它们是否能够抑制和控制病毒,而是它们是否愿意这样做”。 

  然而,虽然全球防范工作监测委员会的报告在前,世卫组织的各种预警在后,世界各国政府并未在时间充足的早期阶段内做好疫情预防的准备,导致了病毒的大肆传播。随着确诊病例的不断增加,确诊病人的治疗工作,疫情的防控工作,医疗物资的配备工作等基本上陷入一团乱麻。

在国际层面,各国政府各自为政,随意截留医疗防护物资的新闻层出不穷,发达国家预定了远超本国真实需求量的疫苗,导致许多欠发达国家无疫苗可用;在国内层面,许多居民拒不配合居家隔离政策,口罩、消毒液、防护服等医疗防护物资储备远远不够,某些国家的大型医院大肆裁员,导致医护人员缺乏。   

种种现象表明,对于一次全球大流行病,我们远未做好准备。但是,这一次的大流行病给我们留下诸多教训,我们必须在深刻吸收此次经验教训的基础上最好应对下一次大流行病的准备。请写一篇报告,论述当下一次大流行病袭来时,我们应该如何成功应对。

 

On September 18, 2019 ,the Global Preparedness Monitoring Board (GPMB) released  A World At Risk: Annual report on global preparedness for health emergencies,in which it predicted that a virulent respiratory pathogen pandemic would break out anytime,causing 50-80 million deaths. In addition to tragic levels of mortality, such a pandemic could cause panic,destabilize national security and seriously impact the global economy and trade.

 

On 31 Dec 2019,WHOs Country Office in the Peoples Republic of China picked up a media statement by the Wuhan Municipal Health Commission from their website on cases of viral pneumonia in Wuhan, Peoples Republic of China. From this day, the WHO has been reporting the latest news about this new disease on a daily basis. However, all the countries turn a deaf ear to the warnings from WHO.

 

On 11 March 2020,Deeply concerned both by the alarming levels of spread and severity, and by the alarming levels of inaction, WHO recognized COVID-19 a pandemic.

 

Speaking at the COVID-19 media briefing, the Director-General highlighted how WHO had been in full response mode since being notified of the first cases and "called every day for countries to take urgent and aggressive action".

 

Recognizing that COVID-19 was not just a public health crisis but one that would touch every sector, he restated WHO's call made from the beginning  for countries to take a whole-of-government and whole-of-society approach, built around a comprehensive strategy to prevent infections,save lives and minimize impact.

 

Emphasizing that “we cannot say this loudly enough, or clearly enough, or often enough”, he stressed that “all countries can still change the course of this pandemic” if they “detect, test, treat, isolate, trace, and mobilize their people in the response”.

 

He stressed that the challenge for many countries who are now dealing with large clusters or community transmission is not whether they can do the same -it’s whether they will”.

 

However,despite the report of the GPMC and the various early warnings of the WH O, governments around the world did not prepare for epidemic in the early stage with sufficient time,which led to the spread of the virus.As the cases continued to rise,the treatment of confirmed patients, the prevention and control of the epidemic, and the provision of medical supplies basically fell into a mess.

 

Internationally, there are continuous reports that government around the around were dealing with this pandemic without cooperation and coordination and detaining medical protective materials;developed countries ordered vaccines that far exceed their real needs, resulting in no vaccine available in many underdeveloped countries. Domestically, many residents refused to obey stay-at-home rules; medical protective materials such as masks,disinfectants, and protective clothing were far from enough; many were laid off by large hospitals in some countries,resulting in a shortage of medical staff.

 

All that are mentioned above show us that we are far from being prepared for a pandemic. However, this pandemic has left us many lessons, and we must prepare for the next pandemic by reflecting and learning from the lessons of this time. Please write a report on how we should be prepared for the next pandemic.

 

参考资料:

1.《重磅报告 |<预防下一次大流行病:人畜共患疾病以及如何阻断传播链>https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/f2l9TrptgvzU1jKqR9uowA

报告原文:https://wedocs.unep.org/bitstream/handle/20.500.11822/32316/ZP.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

 

2.《世卫组织应对COVID-19疫情时间线》 https://www.who.int/zh/news/item/29-06-2020-covidtimeline

 

3. A World At Risk: Annual report on global preparedness for health emergencies

https://apps.who.int/gpmb/assets/annual_report/GPMB_annualreport_2019.pdf

 

4.《致命敌人 为下一次大流行病做准备》   []  迈克尔·T· 奥斯特霍姆 马可·奥尔沙克   张彦希、张瑾、黄怡洁、王宸   中信出版集团 202011;

 

5.《人类大瘟疫 一个世纪以来的全球流行病》  [马克·霍尼斯鲍姆 著,谷晓阳 李曈 ;

 

6.The Pandemic Century Mark Honigsbaum W. W. Norton & Company;

 

注意:本文应从全球范围的角度而非从某一个国家的角度提出应对下一场大流行病的办法。



评分标准Scoring Criteria

 

Category类别

Scoring Criteria标准

points

 Score

Preparation

准备

Show a thorough knowledge and understanding of   the topic.

对话题理解充分,调研充足;

30


Logics

逻辑

Present well-reasoned arguments supported by appropriate   evidence and detail, which are closely to the given topics.

论点逻辑清晰,论据合理贴切,与话题紧密相关;

30


Thinking

思维

Demonstrate original and critical thoughts.

有独到见解,具有批判性思维;

20


Delivery

表达

Fully address all parts of task;

Have a clear introduction and conclusion;

Be natural in transition between paragraphs and points.

文章结构完整,开头及结尾表达准确,段落及观点之间过渡自然;

10


Convey precise meanings with wide range of   vocabulary and structure and have no grammar errors.

用词及结构丰富准确,无语法错误;

10



范文 example papers: 

中文组:见附件一(2018年初赛天河外国语林嘉慧B组“人工智能”)

英文组:见附件二(2018年初赛天河外国语刘子涵A组“巴以问题”)

附件一

附件二


虽然今年提交论文截止时间较晚,但是为了帮助大家写出高质量的文章,模联组委会决定,在4月25日23:59前,前1000名提交的同学可以获得组委会的第一次反馈。收到反馈之后,同学们可以根据反馈意见修改后在5月5日23:59之前再次提交一次,前1000名同学可以再次获得组委会的反馈,根据组委的第二次反馈意见修改后,须在5月15日23:59前提交最终版。


注意:想要获得反馈的同学须在4月25日23:59前第一次提交,5月5日23:59前提交第二次提交,并于5月15日23:59前提交最后的版本(如收到前两次反馈的同学晚于5月15日23:59前提交论文,则以上一次提交论文为准)。


不想获得反馈的同学不受此时间限制。


初赛试题已在微信公众号“中际教育”同步公布。


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